Key threats to network infrastructure

I’ve been working on LAN infrastructure security assessment recently. As a part of it I’d been looking for bullet point-type summary of main threats to the 3 network architecture layers.  I couldn’t find anything like that which led me to compiling my own list.
The below points don’t follow standard access, distribution, core split but Cisco’s “modular design” principle. 
Below points are based on “Cisco SAFE Design Reference Guide”.  http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/solutions/Enterprise/Security/SAFE_RG/chap1.html
  

Enterprise Core:

The following are some of the threat vectors affecting the enterprise core:
  • Service disruption—DoS and DDoS attacks on the infrastructure.
  • Unauthorized access—Intrusions, unauthorized users, escalation of privileges, unauthorized access to restricted infrastructure, and routing protocol attacks.
  • Data disclosure and modification—Packet sniffing, man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks of data while in transit. 

Enterprise Campus:

 The following are some of the key threats that affect the campus:
  • Service disruption—Botnets, malware, adware, spyware, viruses, DoS attacks (buffer overflows and endpoint exploitation), Layer-2 attacks, and DDoS on services and infrastructure.
  • Unauthorized access—Intrusions, unauthorized users, escalation of privileges, IP Spoofing, and unauthorized access to restricted resources.
  • Data disclosure and modification—Sniffing, man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks of data while in transit.
  • Network abuse—Peer-to-peer and instant messaging abuse, out-of-policy browsing, and access to forbidden content.
  • Data leak—From servers and user endpoints, data in transit and in rest.
  • Identity theft and fraud—On servers and end users, phishing, and E-mail spam.

Intranet Data Centre:

 The following are some of the threat vectors affecting the Intranet data center:
  • Unauthorized access
  • Interruption of service
  • Data loss
  • Data modification
Unauthorized access can include unauthorized device access and unauthorized data access. Interruption of service, data loss, and data modification can be the result of targeted attacks. A single threat can target one or more of these areas. Specific threats can include the following: privilege escalation; malware; spyware; botnets; denial-of-service (DoS); traversal attacks (including directory, URL); cross-site scripting attacks; SQL attacks; malformed packets; viruses; worms; and, man-in-the-middle.

Management Module:

The following are some of the expected threat vectors affecting the management module:
  • Unauthorized Access
  • Denial-of-Service (DoS)
  • Distributed DoS (DDoS)
  • Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) Attacks
  • Privilege escalation
  • Intrusions
  • Network reconnaissance
  • Password attacks
  • IP spoofing

Internet Edge:

The Internet edge is a public-facing network infrastructure and is particularly exposed to large array of external threats. Some of the expected threats are as follows:
  • Denial-of-service (DoS), distributed DoS (DDoS)
  • Spyware, malware, and adware
  • Network intrusion, takeover, and unauthorized network access
  • E-mail spam and viruses
  • Web-based phishing, viruses, and spyware
  • Application-layer attacks (XML attacks, cross scripting, and so on)
  • Identity theft, fraud, and data leakage 

Enterprise WAN edge:

The threats addressed in the WAN edge of an end-to-end enterprise architecture are focused on three key areas:
  • Malicious activity initiated by branch clients, including malware proliferation, botnet detection, network and application abuse, and other malicious or non-compliant activity.
  • WAN transit vulnerabilities, such as sniffing and man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks.
  • Attacks against the infrastructure itself, such as unauthorized access, privilege escalation, and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.

Enterprise Branch:

 The threats addressed in the branch of an end-to-end enterprise architecture are focused on the following key areas:
  • Malicious activity by branch clients, including malware proliferation, botnet detection, network and application abuse, and other malicious or non-compliant activity.
  • WAN transit vulnerabilities such as sniffing and man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks.
  • Attacks against the infrastructure itself, such as unauthorized access, privilege escalation, and denial-of-service (DoS) attacks



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